Level 2 recreational running Resources

This page contains course materials relevant to those who have completed or are enrolled in the Level 2 Recreational Running course. Attendees are strongly encouraged to bookmark this page as it will be periodically updated to ensure that you have access to the latest content to develop and consolidate your knowledge. 


key course resources

Lecture Slides

The Level 2 Recreational Running lecture slides are available to download by clicking here. You are encouraged to have this document available to you on the day of the course to allow you to make notes and follow along with the material. 

Course Book

The Level 2 Recreational Running Course Book is designed to provide an overview of the fundamentals of Athletics coaching. It introduces techniques to deliver engaging and safe sessions that introduce the fundamental movement patterns of run, jump, and throw to beginner athletes. 

Participants are required to either print or save the manual to their personal device and have access to it on the day of their course. Upon completion of the course participants are encouraged to refer back to their manual regularly to supplement their learning. 


pre-course work

Click here to register for your Online Learning Modules (Includes Pre-Course work and Learning Material)

Prior to attending your Level 2 Recreational Running course, you are required to complete online modules available through your Online Learning Portal.

required tasks to be completed

  • My Pathway




POST-course work

After completion of your practical course, you are required to complete an online course on coaching behaviour and create and submit short responses to prescribed scenarios through your Online Learning Portal.  Instructions and additional resources to help you design your are available through the Learning Portal.

required tasks to be completed

  • pbtr - harassment and discrimination course

  • Post-course assignment


Click here to begin. 

Email if you require any assistance completing your pre- or post- course assessment tasks.



The following articles are designed to extend your knowledge and may be of interest to those working or intending to work in the Recreational Running industry.

Athletics Australia does not endorse any of these articles, rather we provide them for your consideration and hope that you will find them interesting, informative and insightful. Coaches are encouraged to apply their own critical judgement in assessing what is published. 

Online Courses, Guides, and Lectures

The Adult Pre-Exercise Screening System by Fitness Australia - A pre-exercise screening tool used to identify people who may have medical conditions that place them at a higher risk of an adverse health event during physical activity. 

Community Coaching General Principles by The Australian Institute of Sport - A fully online education course introducing the key principles of coaching at a community level. (Free registration required).  

Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles 

Ferrauti, A., Bergermann, M., & Fernandez-Fernandez, J. (2010). Effects of a Concurrent Strength and Endurance Training on Running Performance and Running Economy in Recreational Marathon Runners, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(10), 2770-2778. 

Koplan, J., Powell, K., Sikes, K., Shirley, R., & Campbell, M. (1982). An Epidemiological Study of the Benefits and Risks of Running, The Journal of American Medical Association, 248(23), 3118-3121. 

Malisoux, L., Chambon, N., Delattre, N., Gueguen, N., Urhausen, A., & Theisen, D. (2016). Injury Risk in Runners Using Standard or Motion Control Shoes: a Randomised Controlled Trial With Participant and Assessor Blinding, British Journal of Sports Medicine, 50, 481-487. 

Marti, B. (1991). Health Effects of Recreational Running in Women, Sports Medicine, 11, 20-51. 

Strohle, A. (2009). Physical Activity, Exercise, Depression and Anxiety Disorders, Journal of Biological Psychiarty, 116, 777-784.

Szabo, A. & Abraham, J. (2013). The psychological benefits of recreational running: A field study, Psychology,, Health & Medicine, 18(3), 251-261. 

Witard, O., McGlory, C., Hamilton, L., & Phillips, S. (2016). Growing Older with Health and Vitality: A Nexus of Physical Activity, Exercise, and Nutrition, Biogerontology, 1-18. 


van Uffelen, J., Jenkin, C., Westerbeek, H., Biddle, S., & Eime, R. (2016). Active and Healthy Ageing Through Sport, Australian Sports Commission. 

Training Programs

Mackenzie, B. (2004). Half Marathon Training Program, Brian Mac.

Mackenzie, B. (2004). Marathon Training Program, Brian Mac.

Website Articles

Barrows, S. (2018). Why Endurance Athletes Need a Yoga Practice, Medium.

Carmichael, S. (2015). How to Coach, According to 5 Great Sports Coaches, Harvard Business Review. 

Damen, L. (2016). How to Peak at the Right Time for a Marathon, Realbuzz.

Davis, J. (2013). The Relationship Between Hip Strength and Running Injuries - The Latest Research,Runners Connect.

Fitzgerald, M. (2013). Running 101: Combating Sore Muscles After a Run, Competitor. 

Haydon, R. (2016). Running is Good for your Mental Health - and I'm Here to Prove it, The Guardian.

Hutchinson, A. (2015). How much water should you drink?, The Globe and Mail. 

Shaw, J. (2014). Perfect Your Downhill Running Form, Competitor. 

Overall, S. (2016). How to Deal with Injury Setbacks, Realbuzz. 

Weil, R., & Stoppler, M. (2016). Running: Risks, Benefits & Shoes, eMedicineHealth. 

course material reference list

The information presented as part of the course has been taken from the following resources.

1.        Almonroeder, T., Willson, J. D., & Kernozek, T. W. (2013). The effect of foot strike pattern on Achilles tendon load during running. Annals of biomedical engineering41(8), 1758-1766. http://www.scienceofultra.com/s/Almonroeder_Achilles_tendon_loads_per_km_forefoot_striking.pdf

2.        Australian Institute of Sport. (2006). Beginning Coach Principles. Canberra, ACT: Australian Institute of Sport. http://shop.ausport.gov.au/epages/ais.sf/en_AU/?ObjectID=110269

3.        Chu, T. L. A. The Application of Augmented Feedback in Coaching Table Tennis Youth Athletes.


4.        Coombes, J. S., & Hamilton, K. L. (2000). The effectiveness of commercially available sports drinks. Sports Medicine29(3), 181-209. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/4153/3f2a4dd85d5daf3a6240bab164c3ccba9d36.pdf

5.        Coyle, E. F., Martin 3rd, W. H., Sinacore, D. R., Joyner, M. J., Hagberg, J. M., & Holloszy, J. O. (1984). Time course of loss of adaptations after stopping prolonged intense endurance training. Journal of Applied Physiology57(6), 1857-1864. http://www.academia.edu/download/44270511/Time_course_of_loss_of_adaptation_after_20160331-10544-1m0ms6a.pdf

6.        Daoud, A. I., Geissler, G. J., Wang, F., Saretsky, J., Daoud, Y. A., & Lieberman, D. E. (2012). Foot strike and injury rates in endurance runners: a retrospective study. Med Sci Sports Exerc44(7), 1325-34. https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/dlieberman/files/2012b.pdf

7.        Ferrauti, A., Bergermann, M., & Fernandez-Fernandez, J. (2010). Effects of a Concurrent Strength and Endurance Training on Running Performance and Running Economy in Recreational Marathon Runners, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(10), 2770-2778http://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/Abstract/2010/10000/Effects_of_a_Concurrent_Strength_and_Endurance.26.aspx

8.        Folland, J. P., Allen, S. J., Black, M. I., Handsaker, J. C., & Forrester, S. E. (2017). Running technique is an important component of running economy and performance. Medicine and science in sports and exercise49(7), 1412. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5473370/

9.        Gibala, M. J., MacDougall, J. D., & Sale, D. G. (1994). The effects of tapering on strength performance in trained athletes. International Journal of Sports Medicine15(08), 492-497. https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/abstract/10.1055/s-2007-1021093

10.     Gottschall, J. S., & Kram, R. (2005). Ground reaction forces during downhill and uphill running. Journal of biomechanics38(3), 445-452. https://isbweb.org/images/conf/2003/shortAbstracts/GOTTSCHALL_174-182_GL_E.pdf

11.     Hasegawa, H., Yamauchi, T., & Kraemer, W. J. (2007). Foot strike patterns of runners at the 15-km point during an elite-level half marathon. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research21(3), 888. https://search.proquest.com/openview/afe46ff74bf0438dd2f78dcaaa4eb17e/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=30912

12.     Herbert, R. D., & Gabriel, M. (2002). Effects of stretching before and after exercising on muscle soreness and risk of injury: systematic review. Bmj325(7362), 468. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC119442/

13.     Hew-Butler, T., Rosner, M. H., Fowkes-Godek, S., Dugas, J. P., Hoffman, M. D., Lewis, D. P., ... & Roberts, W. O. (2015). Statement of the third international exercise-associated hyponatremia consensus development conference, Carlsbad, California, 2015. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine25(4), 303-320. https://cupola.gettysburg.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1065&context=healthfac

14.     Hoogkamer, W., Kipp, S., Spiering, B. A., & Kram, R. (2016). Altered running economy directly translates to altered distance-running performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc48(11), 2175-80. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Rodger_Kram/publication/304250501_Altered_Running_Economy_Directly_Translates_to_Altered_Distance-Running_Performance/links/59df5d0da6fdccfcfda353d1/Altered-Running-Economy-Directly-Translates-to-Altered-Distance-Running-Performance.pdf

15.     Houmard, J. A., Kirwan, J. P., Flynn, M. G., & Mitchell, J. B. (1989). Effects of reduced training on submaximal and maximal running responses. International journal of sports medicine10(01), 30-33. https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/abstract/10.1055/s-2007-1024869

16.     Houmard, J. A., Scott, B. K., Justice, C. L., & Chenier, T. C. (1994). The effects of taper on performance in distance runners. Medicine and science in sports and exercise26(5), 624-631. http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/8007812

17.     Jones, A. M., & Carter, H. (2000). The effect of endurance training on parameters of aerobic fitness. Sports medicine29(6), 373-386. http://www.carlocapelli.it/ftp/didattica/specialistica/Bibliografia/Endurance_running/Jones_Carter_2000.pdf

18.     Kenitzer Jr, R. F. (1998). Optimal taper period in female swimmers. Journal of Swimming Research13. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&profile=ehost&scope=site&authtype=crawler&jrnl=07475993&AN=31730071&h=vcjKiRWCPIlOGojMIpyKzngYg5Cr%2FstvrSOiCQ6J5FRPnaln8H0vRm49f4Ss8wffzAsIrC%2Fp3wNhczPSOHULaA%3D%3D&crl=c

19.     Koplan, J., Powell, K., Sikes, K., Shirley, R., & Campbell, M. (1982). An Epidemiological Study of the Benefits and Risks of Running, The Journal of American Medical Association, 248(23), 3118-3121http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=381161

20.     Larson, P., Higgins, E., Kaminski, J., Decker, T., Preble, J., Lyons, D., ... & Normile, A. (2011). Foot strike patterns of recreational and sub-elite runners in a long-distance road race. Journal of sports sciences29(15), 1665-1673. https://shapeamerica.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02640414.2011.610347#.XGIcfDMzbIU

21.     Law, R. Y., & Herbert, R. D. (2007). Warm-up reduces delayed-onset muscle soreness but cool-down does not: a randomised controlled trial. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy53(2), 91-95. http://files.profricardo2.webnode.pt/200000074-5dc945ec45/Warm-up%20cool-down%20and%20muscle%20soroness%20Law%202007.pdf

22.     Lee, J. (2014). Warm Up Essentials. Retrieved from www.bsu.edu.cn/pub/irdc/docs/20150312161739035468.pdf

23.     Lee, T. D., Swinnen, S. P., & Serrien, D. J. (1994). Cognitive effort and motor learning. Quest46(3), 328-344. http://hardcarve.com/wikipic/cognitive_effort_promotes_learning.pdf

24.     Lowery, R. P., Joy, J. M., Brown, L. E., de Souza, E. O., Wistocki, D. R., Davis, G. S., ... & Wilson, J. M. (2014). Effects of static stretching on 1-mile uphill run performance. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research28(1), 161-167. https://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/Fulltext/2014/01000/Effects_of_Static_Stretching_on_1_Mile_Uphill_Run.21.aspx

25.     Malisoux, L., Chambon, N., Delattre, N., Gueguen, N., Urhausen, A., & Theisen, D. (2016). Injury Risk in Runners Using Standard or Motion Control Shoes: a Randomised Controlled Trial With Participant and Assessor Blinding, British Journal of Sports Medicine, 50, 481-487.  http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/50/8/481.full?g=w_bjsm_open_tab

26.     Marti, B. (1991). Health Effects of Recreational Running in Women, Sports Medicine, 11, 20-51http://link.springer.com/article/10.2165/00007256-199111010-00003

27.     Mayhew, J. L. (1977). Oxygen cost and energy expenditure of running in trained runners. British Journal of Sports Medicine11(3), 116-121. http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/bjsports/11/3/116.full.pdf

28.     McIlroy, J. (2017). Coaching Adults to Get Active. Retrieved from https://www.sportspartnershiphw.co.uk/uploads/coaching-adults-to-get-active-(final)-2.pdf

29.     McMillian, D. J., Moore, J. H., Hatler, B. S., & Taylor, D. C. (2006). Dynamic vs. static-stretching warm up: the effect on power and agility performance. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research20(3), 492-499. http://www.touchontheball.com/downloads/Dynamic%20vs%20Static%20Stretching%20Article%201.pdf

30.     Mujika, I., & Padilla, S. (2003). Scientific bases for precompetition tapering strategies. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise35(7), 1182-1187. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/030b/c9954182e09d2617d5487a395e5d2d0325d8.pdf

31.     Neary, J. P., Martin, T. P., Reid, D. C., Burnham, R., & Quinney, H. A. (1992). The effects of a reduced exercise duration taper programme on performance and muscle enzymes of endurance cyclists. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology65(1), 30-36. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Patrick_Neary/publication/21649259_The_effects_of_a_reduced_exercise_duration_taper_programme_on_performance_and_muscle_enzymes_of_endurance_cyclists/links/54fd356b0cf270426d11618e/The-effects-of-a-reduced-exercise-duration-taper-programme-on-performance-and-muscle-enzymes-of-endurance-cyclists.pdf

32.     Olsen, O., Sjøhaug, M., Van Beekvelt, M., & Mork, P. J. (2012). The effect of warm-up and cool-down exercise on delayed onset muscle soreness in the quadriceps muscle: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of human kinetics35(1), 59-68. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/hukin.2012.35.issue-1/v10078-012-0079-4/v10078-012-0079-4.pdf

33.     Pollock, B. J., & Lee, T. D. (1992). Effects of the model's skill level on observational motor learning. Research quarterly for exercise and sport63(1), 25-29. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02701367.1992.10607553

34.     Rhea, M. R., Ball, S. D., Phillips, W. T., & Burkett, L. N. (2002). A comparison of linear and daily undulating periodized programs with equated volume and intensity for strength. The Journal of strength & conditioning research16(2), 250-255. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Wayne_Phillips3/publication/10905302_A_Comparison_of_Linear_and_Daily_Undulating_Periodized_Programs_With_Equated_Volume_and_Intensity_for_Local_Muscular_Endurance/links/57adfd8d08ae0101f1726fab/A-Comparison-of-Linear-and-Daily-Undulating-Periodized-Programs-With-Equated-Volume-and-Intensity-for-Local-Muscular-Endurance.pdf

35.     Rosner, M. H. (2015). Preventing deaths due to exercise-associated hyponatremia: the 2015 consensus guidelines. https://journals.lww.com/cjsportsmed/fulltext/2015/07000/Preventing_Deaths_Due_to_Exercise_Associated.1.aspx

36.     Rosner, M. H., & Kirven, J. (2007). Exercise-associated hyponatremia. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology2(1), 151-161. http://cjasn.asnjournals.org/content/2/1/151.full.pdf

37.     Safran, M. R., Seaber, A. V., & Garrett, W. E. (1989). Warm-up and muscular injury prevention an update. Sports Medicine8(4), 239-249. https://link.springer.com/article/10.2165/00007256-198908040-00004

38.     Schneider, M. B., & Benjamin, H. J. (2011). Sports drinks and energy drinks for children and adolescents: are they appropriate?. Pediatrics127(6), 1182-1189. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/127/6/1182.short

39.     Sharkey, B. (1996). Coaches’ Guide to Sport Physiology. London: Human Kinetics. https://www.worldofbooks.com/en-au/books/brian-j-sharkey/coaches-guide-to-sport-physiology/GOR004983298?gclid=Cj0KCQiA14TjBRD_ARIsAOCmO9ZZgUUASBgK9cdT1_nnFiN95VPHp3ibBGHgRqLU8Q2L5H_G3buXipEaAn9aEALw_wcB

40.     Shaw, A. J., Ingham, S. A., & Folland, J. P. (2014). The valid measurement of running economy in runners. Medicine and science in sports and exercise46(10), 1968-1973. https://europepmc.org/abstract/med/24561819

41.     Strohle, A. (2009). Physical Activity, Exercise, Depression and Anxiety Disorders, Journal of Biological Psychiarty, 116, 777-784. http://spers.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/physical-activity-and-exercise-on-anxiety-and-depression.pdf

42.     Szabo, A. & Abraham, J. (2013). The psychological benefits of recreational running: A field study, Psychology, Health & Medicine, 18(3), 251-261.  http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13548506.2012.701755

43.     Takahashi, T., Okada, A., Hayano, J., & Tamura, T. (2001). Influence of cool-down exercise on autonomic control of heart rate during recovery from dynamic exercise. Frontiers of Medical and Biological Engineering11(4), 249-259. https://brill.com/abstract/journals/fmbe/11/4/article-p249.xml

44.     Toulotte, C., Thevenon, A., & Fabre, C. (2006). Effects of training and detraining on the static and dynamic balance in elderly fallers and non-fallers: a pilot study. Disability and rehabilitation28(2), 125-133. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09638280500163653

45.     Townshend, A. D., Worringham, C. J., & Stewart, I. (2010). Spontaneous pacing during overground hill running. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise42(1), 160-169. http://eprints.qut.edu.au/31504/1/c31504.pdf

46.     Turner, A. M., Owings, M., & Schwane, J. A. (2003). Improvement in running economy after 6 weeks of plyometric training. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research17(1), 60-67. https://elitetrack.com/article_files/running-economy.pdf

47.     Vikmoen, O., Raastad, T., Seynnes, O., Bergstrøm, K., Ellefsen, S., & Rønnestad, B. R. (2016). Effects of heavy strength training on running performance and determinants of running performance in female endurance athletes. PloS one11(3), e0150799. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0150799

48.     Whyte, G. P., George, K., Shave, R., Middleton, N., & Nevill, A. M. (2008). Training induced changes in maximum heart rate. International journal of sports medicine29(02), 129-133. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Greg_Whyte/publication/5884384_Training_Induced_Changes_in_Maximum_Heart_Rate/links/5730b01608ae100ae55740e6.pdf

49.     Williams, C. K., Tremblay, L., & Carnahan, H. (2016). It pays to go off-track: practicing with error-augmenting haptic feedback facilitates learning of a curve-tracing task. Frontiers in psychology7, 2010. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.02010

50.     Williams, K. R., & Cavanagh, P. R. (1987). Relationship between distance running mechanics, running economy, and performance. Journal of Applied Physiology63(3), 1236-1245. https://www.physiology.org/doi/abs/10.1152/jappl.1987.63.3.1236

51.     Wilson, J. M., Hornbuckle, L. M., Kim, J. S., Ugrinowitsch, C., Lee, S. R., Zourdos, M. C., ... & Panton, L. B. (2010). Effects of static stretching on energy cost and running endurance performance. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research24(9), 2274-2279. https://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/Fulltext/2010/09000/Effects_of_Static_Stretching_on_Energy_Cost_and.2.aspx

52.     Witard, O., McGlory, C., Hamilton, L., & Phillips, S. (2016). Growing Older with Health and Vitality: A Nexus of Physical Activity, Exercise, and Nutrition, Biogerontology, 1-18.  http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10522-016-9637-9/fulltext.html

53.     Woods, K., Bishop, P., & Jones, E. (2007). Warm-up and stretching in the prevention of muscular injury. Sports Medicine37(12), 1089-1099. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Phil_Bishop2/publication/5819336_Warm-Up_and_Stretching_in_the_Prevention_of_Muscular_Injury/links/5739c44208ae9ace840dadda/Warm-Up-and-Stretching-in-the-Prevention-of-Muscular-Injury.pdf

One of the biggest differences between the training of world-class runners and that of recreational runners is how slowly we elites sometimes run. Let me explain. Let’s say it’s the day after a hard workout. A typical recovery run for me is 10 miles in 65 minutes. A 10-miler at an average of 6:30 per mile might sound fast, but consider it in perspective. That’s almost 2 minutes per mile slower than I can run for a half-marathon and more than 90 seconds per mile slower than my marathon race pace. For someone who runs a 3:30 marathon, which is about 8 minutes per mile, that would be like averaging a 9:30 pace on a recovery day
— Meb Keflezighi

Coaching Resources

Barefoot Running

Level 4 Senior IAAF Coach and Physiotherapist, Blayne Arnold provides a literature review of the effects of running barefoot

Running on Sand for Injury prevention and Performance

It has been claimed that soft surface running is a great way to improve strength, fitness and running performance while preventing injury. This article examines what the peer reviewed evidence says on the matter, in conjunction with the opinion of some of Australia's leading recreational running coaches.

Click here to download.

Exercised-associated hyponatremia

Exercise-associated hyponatremia is believed to affect approximately 15% of runners and triathletes at major competitions and in severe cases has been the cause of several fatalities. All run leaders, especially those working with novice long distance runners, must be aware of the warning signs. 

Click here or on the thumbnails below to learn what it is, how to avoid it, the warning signs and how to manage runners showing symptoms. 

Strength and conditioning for Beginning Athletes

This conditioning circuit will assist in the development of young athlete's strength, power, muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance, co-ordination and flexibility. 

Click here to download. 

IAAF Introduction to Coaching

A holistic coaching guide to introduce to the key aspects of coaching track and field.

Click here to read the IAAF's 'Introduction to Coaching' Manual.

Sports CONNECT - Inclusion in Sport

Designed by the Australian Sports Commission, the Inclusion in Sport Manual serves as an important tool in supporting coaches to deliver inclusive sessions that are accessible to all athletes. All Level 2 Intermediate Club coaches are encouraged to save the Inclusion in Sport PDF to their personal device and reflect on the content regularly to ensure they are delivering inclusive sessions in a manner that allows athletes under their care to achieve their best. 

Click here to access the manual. 


Compare and contrast the foot-strike of experienced and beginning recreational runners.